KBBAT Breeding Criteria

Following is the criteria that were used in the first Kansas Breeding Bird Atlas project to determine the breeding status of birds. As you move down the list, you have higher level of breeding evidence. For example, "visiting probable nesting site" shows higher evidence for breeding than "courtship or copulation."

Criteria Used for Possible Breeding

Species observed or heard, (within safe dates) but not in appropriate habitat.

Species heard or seen in breeding habitat (within safe dates.)

Criteria Used for Probable Breeding

Seven singing males detected in one location on a single visit.

Pair seen (male & female together - not a flock).

Bird holding territory (exclude colonial nesters).

Courtship or copulation.

Visiting probable nesting site.

Agitated behavior or anxiety call (not intentionally provoked).

Nest building by wrens or woodpeckers.

Criteria Used for Confirmed Breeding

Nest building (by all except wrens and woodpeckers).

Physiological evidence of breeding based on brood patch.

Distraction display or injury feigning.

Used nest or eggshells found.

Recently fledged young, including precocial young out of nest. 

Adults entering or leaving nest site in circumstances indicating nesting.

Adult carrying fecal sac.

Adult seen carrying food for young.

Nest with egg(s).

Nest with young seen or heard.

Criteria used are those established for the Kansas Breeding Bird Atlas Project.